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優異      |      優秀      |      高級      |      中級      |      初級


The actfl Language Proficiency Syllabus 2012 -- speaking describes the five main language proficiency levels: Excellent, Excellent, Advanced, Intermediate and Elementary。The description of each major level represents a specific range of capabilities。These levels are aggregated into a hierarchy in which each level covers all levels below it。The three main grades of senior, intermediate and primary are divided into three secondary grades of higher, middle and elementary respectively。

The outline describes what speakers can accomplish at each level and the content, context, accuracy, and type of conversation associated with each level of task。The outline also shows the limits that speakers can reach in trying to reach the next higher major level。

An outline can be used to assess interpersonal communication (interactive, two-way) or presentation (one-way, non-interactive)。

Written descriptions of speaking standards are available online with speaking samples to illustrate the characteristics of each major level。

actfl Language Proficiency 2012: speaking is for non-profit, educational use only. It must be reproduced in full and cannot be altered, and must be attributed to actfl。


Excellent speakers use language proficiently, accurately, concisely, and effectively。They are educated, articulate speakers of language。They are able to think about broad holistic issues and highly abstract concepts in culturally appropriate ways。Superior speakers can use persuasive and hypothetical language for positional purposes, but they are not necessarily expressing their own opinions。They can tailor their speeches to different audiences and use culturally appropriate expressions。

Speakers at a high level deliver words that are skilled, compact, and detailed。At the same time, their speeches can be concise and to the point, often using cultural and historical allusions to make them concise and comprehensive。Spoken language at this level is usually close to written language。

Languages at this level may still have non-native accents, a lack of native conciseness, limited control over deep cultural allusions, and/or occasional individual language errors。


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A high-caliber speaker can communicate accurately and fluently, fully and effectively on both concrete and abstract levels on a wide range of topics in both formal and informal Settings。They can discuss their interests and special areas of competence, explain complex affairs in detail, and describe coherently at a certain length, speak eloquently and accurately。They are able to express their opinions on topics of interest to them, such as social and political topics, and to back them up with structured arguments。They can construct and develop hypotheses to explore alternative possibilities。

When appropriate, even in abstract exposition, these speakers can make their points in longer sentences without being unnaturally long and hesitant。Although such discourse is coherent, it may still be influenced by language patterns other than the target language。Good speakers use a variety of interaction and speech techniques, such as taking turns, using syntax, vocabulary, phonics, etc., to separate main ideas from supporting information。

A good speaker will not see error patterns in the use of basic sentence structures, but may make sporadic errors, especially in low-frequency and complex high-frequency sentences。Even if these errors occur, they do not bother native speakers or affect their communication。


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High-level speakers participate actively in the conversation, exchanging information on topics relevant to their personal lives as well as on community, national and international topics。They address these topics in narrative and descriptive terms in the past, present, and major time frames of the future。These speakers can also deal with social situations of unexpected complexity。If the oral paragraph is used as the standard of high-level level and discourse, high-level speakers are rich in language。Their mastery of basic syntactic structures and common vocabulary is such that native speakers of the language, including those less accustomed to speaking in a non-native language, can understand the language。


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Advanced level speakers can use language to perform all advanced level tasks with ease, confidence, and competence。They are always able to elaborate, complete and accurate in all time frames。in addition, advanced speakers can speak at an excellent level, but have trouble covering multiple topics at that level。They may offer coherent arguments to support their opinions, or they may construct hypotheses that show false patterns。他們可以抽象地討論某些話題,特別是那些與其特定興趣及特別專業領域有關的話題,但是一般来说,他們更能自如地對各種話題進行具體的討論。

高级高等水準講話者可能會通過有效使用變換措辭、迂回釋義及舉例說明等交流技巧,來彌補未能充分掌握某些慣用語句或詞彙量不足的缺陷,以展示出很好的語言能力。They use a precise vocabulary and intonation to convey their meaning, and most of the time their speech is smooth and deliberate。然而,如果要求他們就多個話題完成優秀水準的相關任務,他們的語言會不時出現障礙或表現得辭不達意;他們也可能用諸如描述或敘述的簡化方式,來取代論辯或假設,以規避任務。


Advanced and medium level speakers can handle many communication tasks with ease and confidence。他們能夠在大部分非正式及部分正式場合積極地參與涉及工作、學校、家庭及休閒活動的多個具體話題討論,以及涉及時事、公共事務、個人興趣或與自己相關的話題。

Advanced medium level speakers demonstrate narrative and descriptive skills through complete presentations and a grasp of scope in major time frames past, present and future。Its narrative and description are often combined and interwoven, bringing the relevant auxiliary facts into coherent, segmented discourse。

高级中等水準的講話者能夠在常規情況下或當他們平素熟悉的交流任務語境中出現複雜或出乎意料的情況時,成功並相對輕鬆地應對由此帶來的挑戰。They often use communication techniques such as indirect paraphrasing or rephrasing to achieve this goal。When performing high-level tasks, high-level medium level speakers are characterized by their fluency in content。Their vocabularies are quite extensive, though mostly ordinary in nature, unless they relate to a particular area of expertise or interest。Their speech may still reflect the oral paragraph structure of the native language rather than the target language。

高级中等水準的講話者在很多熟悉的話題上都能從具體層面參與對話,表達大多準確、清晰、精確,而且他們在傳達自己想表述的訊息時不會失實或令人困惑。Native speakers who are not used to dealing with non-native speakers can also easily understand their speech。The quality and/or quantity of their speech will generally decline if they are asked to tackle an excellent-level topic or complete a related task。


Advanced elementary level speakers can handle a variety of communication tasks。They can participate in most informal and some formal conversations about school, family, and leisure activities。They can also talk about a number of topics related to work, current affairs, and public and community interests。

Advanced elementary level speakers demonstrate narrative and descriptive ability through paragraph length discourse and a certain mastery of scope in major time frames past, present, and future。In these narratives and descriptions, advanced elementary speakers combine sentences into coherent chunks of discourse, but these narratives and descriptions often seem segmented and incoherent。When complex or unexpected situations arise, they are able to respond appropriately with basic language。

Most responses from senior elementary speakers will not be longer than a paragraph。The speaker's primary language may be obvious due to the use of incorrect cognates, verbatim translations, or the oral paragraph structure of his or her primary language。Their discourse, sometimes at the lowest end of the scale, is marked by fluency, stuttering and obvious self-correction。In general, senior elementary speakers tend to be erratic。

Advanced elementary level speakers often have grammatical errors (e.g., a spotty grasp of verb endings), but are generally able to perform advanced level tasks, though not satisfactory。The vocabulary of advanced elementary speakers usually lacks features。After all, can advanced elementary speakers still use communication techniques such as rephrasing and indirect paraphrasing。

Advanced elementary level speakers are generally able to convey their message accurately, clearly, and precisely when participating in a conversation, without being inaccurate or confusing。Native speakers who are not used to dealing with non-native speakers can also understand their speech, although this may require some repetition or reformulation。The quality and quantity of their language decreases significantly if they try to deal with a topic of excellence or complete a task。


The main distinguishing characteristic of intermediate speakers is their linguistic creativity in discussing familiar topics related to their daily lives。They are able to recombine the material they have learned to express their personal meaning。Intermediate speakers can ask simple questions and deal with simple survival challenging situations。Their language is confined to the sentence level, where there are disconnected sentences and clusters of sentences, mostly in the present tense。Interlocutors who are used to working with non-native speakers of the language can understand what intermediate speakers are saying。


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Intermediate advanced speakers can speak with ease and confidence when dealing with intermediate level routine tasks and social situations。They can successfully handle uncomplicated tasks and social situations when they need to communicate basic information about their work, school, leisure, specific interests and areas of expertise。

Intermediate and advanced level speakers can perform a significant portion of the tasks associated with advanced level, but they do not perform consistently well on all of these tasks。Intermediate and advanced speakers are often, but not always, able to narrate and describe in coherent paragraphs across all major time frames。一般来说,Intermediate advanced level speakers are trying to complete advanced level tasks,Their language may exhibit one or more features of the disorder,For example, a complete narrative or description cannot be provided within the appropriate main time frame,Inability to maintain a coherent discourse,Or decreased diversity and appropriateness of words。



Mid-level speakers can successfully handle a variety of uncomplicated communication tasks in simple social situations。談話一般限於那些在目標文化中生存所必需的具體且可以預料到的交談,包括與個人、家庭、居家、日常活動、愛好以及個人喜好有關的個人資訊,還包括生活及社會需求方面的資訊,例如食品、購物、旅行及住宿。

Mid-level speakers tend to be reactive, such as responding directly to a question or request for information。But they can ask multiple questions when necessary to get simple information to meet basic needs, such as directions, prices and services。如果要求他們應對高級水準的話題或完成相關任務,他們會提供部分資訊,但是在連接觀點、靈活處理時間及範圍、使用迂回釋義等交流技巧上會感到吃力。

中级中等水準的講話者能夠用語言進行創作,從而表達自己的意思,部分做法是將已知元素及會話資訊進行組合及重組,從而作出回答,其構成通常為句子或成串的句子。Their speech may involve pauses, restatements, and self-corrections as they search for sufficient vocabulary and appropriate idiomatic language to express themselves。In spite of limitations in vocabulary and/or pronunciation and/or grammar and/or syntax, interlocutors who are tolerant and accustomed to dealing with non-native speakers can usually understand their conversation。

In general, intermediate level speakers can easily complete intermediate level tasks and display a marked quantity and quality of intermediate level language。


Intermediate and elementary level speakers can create with language in simple social situations and successfully handle a limited number of uncomplicated communication tasks。Conversations are limited to a few specific conversations and predictable topics necessary for survival in the target-language culture。These topics are related to basic personal information, such as personal and family, some daily activities and personal preferences, and some immediate needs, such as ordering food and simple shopping。Middle and elementary speakers respond and grapple primarily with direct questions or information inquiries。They can also ask the right questions。Intermediate and elementary speakers can still manage to complete all intermediate level tasks, although this can be very difficult。

Intermediate and elementary level speakers express themselves by combining and reorganizing the information they know and hear from their interlocutors into short statements and disconnected sentences。Their answers are often hesitant and inaccurate as they search for appropriate idioms and words to try to construct the message。Their speeches are marked by frequent pauses, ineffectual recounts and self-corrections。Their pronunciation, vocabulary and syntax are strongly influenced by their native language。儘管中级初等講話者頻繁出現誤解,需要重複或重新敘述,但寬容體諒的對話者、特別是那些習慣與非母語人士打交道的人通常可以明白他們的談話。


Low-level speakers are able to exchange short messages on everyday topics that are highly predictable and directly affect them。They do this mainly by using isolated words and phrases that they have seen, remembered and can recall。The language of a beginner speaker can be difficult to understand even for the most understanding and accustomed non-native speaker。


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Advanced level speakers can handle multiple intermediate level tasks, but cannot maintain performance at that level。They can successfully complete uncomplicated communication tasks in simple social situations。Conversation is limited to a few predictable topics necessary for survival in the target-language culture, such as basic personal information, basic objects, several activities, preferences, and immediate needs。Advanced speakers can respond to simple and direct questions or information inquiries。They can also ask generic questions。

Advanced speakers can express their own ideas, but they rely heavily on phrases or reconstructions learned and on information they hear from their interlocutors。Their language consists mainly of short and often incomplete sentences in the present tense, and can be indecisive or inaccurate。On the other hand, since their language composition is often an accumulation of learned material and stored phrases, they can sometimes show surprising fluency and accuracy。Pronunciation, vocabulary and syntax may be strongly influenced by the mother tongue。Although misunderstandings can be caused from time to time, through repetition or restatement, a junior speaker can generally be understood by an understanding interlocutor accustomed to speaking in a non-native language。If asked to tackle intermediate level topics or tasks, junior advanced speakers can sometimes respond with clear sentences, but are unable to maintain a sentence。


Low-level speakers are limited in their communication, using a limited number of isolated words and memorized phrases, and are limited by the specific context in which they learned the language。When answering direct questions, they may only speak two or three words at a time or occasionally give a prepared answer。They often pause as they search for simple words or try to repeat their own and their interlocutor's words。Even for tolerant interlocutors who are used to dealing with non-native speakers, understanding junior level speakers can be difficult。When asked to deal with topics or function at an intermediate level, they often use repetition, borrowing from their native language, or silence。


Elementary level speakers have no real ability to use the language and may not be understood at all because of pronunciation。Given enough time and familiar cues, they might be able to greet each other, introduce themselves, and point out a few familiar objects from their surroundings。They can't handle mid-level topics or tasks, so they can't participate in real conversations。